Adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO) allows visualization of the living human retina with exquisite single-cell resolution. This technology has improved our understanding of normal retinal structure and revealed pathophysiological details of a number of retinal diseases. Despite the remarkable capabilities of AOSLO, it has not seen the widespread commercial adoption and mainstream clinical success of other modalities developed in a similar time frame. Nevertheless, continued advancements in AOSLO hardware and software have expanded use to a broader range of patients. Current devices enable imaging of a number of different retinal cell types, with recent improvements in stimulus and detection schemes enabling monitoring of retinal function, microscopic structural changes, and even subcellular activity. This has positioned AOSLO for use in clinical trials, primarily as exploratory outcome measures or biomarkers that can be used to monitor disease progression or therapeutic response. AOSLO metrics could facilitate patient selection for such trials, to refine inclusion criteria or to guide the choice of therapy, depending on the presence, absence, or functional viability of specific cell types.

Reference link-