The researchers conducted a double-blind, randomized clinical experiment. For a study, the researchers sought to find how protein supplementation affected vertebral fusion and recovery time following posterior spine fusion (PSF) surgery. From 48 hours before surgery to 1 month following surgery, the intervention group received a diet containing 1.2 g of protein plus a high-protein supplement (36 g whey protein). In contrast, the control group had a similar meal except for starch as a placebo. Compared to the control group, the intervention group had a significantly higher rate of vertebral fusion (P=0.019). The intervention group had considerably decreased rates of surgical site infection and discomfort. The wound healing rate was significantly higher in the intervention group. The intervention group had a more significant decrease in serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels and a more tremendous increase in serum insulin-like growth factor 1, albumin, total protein, and alkaline phosphatase levels than the control group (P<0.001).  In PSF patients, increased protein consumption improves spinal fusion and enhances recovery. Because the study conducted was the first study to look at the effect of protein on fusion and healing factors, more clinical trials are needed to confirm the findings.