Allergic disorders are considered to be the result of abnormal immunological responses. The epithelium responds to environmental stimuli by producing important cytokines such as thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), IL-33, and IL-25. Although there are significant variations between these cytokines, there are also commonalities that complicate a clear understanding of their precise functions. The goal of this review is to examine current discoveries in the biology and activities of these cytokines, to identify their distinctions and similarities, and to give a fresh conceptual understanding of their involvement in allergic disorders. The timing, start, and kinetics of the reactions, as well as the strength of action of TSLP, IL-33, and IL-25, varied significantly. Airway remodeling and fibrosis-related activities, the fetal-maternal interface, T-cell biology, group 2 innate lymphoid cell biology, and the mast cell–neutrophil axis are all new roles for these cytokines. These cytokines have also been implicated in the development of atopic dermatitis and asthma.
TSLP, IL-25, and IL-33 are all known to play key roles in the pathogenesis of allergy disorders. A better understanding of the distinctions and similarities between the immunological pathways mediated by these cytokines might aid in the treatment of allergic disorders.