For a study, researchers sought to understand that the most common primary intraocular malignancies in adults and children are uveal melanoma (UM) and retinoblastoma (RB), both of which can lead to blindness and even death. Studies on epigenetics have revealed that modifications to the epigenome have a role in the quick advancement of both UM and RB following conventional genetic changes. By upsetting the regular patterns of gene expression, the loss of epigenetic homeostasis was a significant contributor to oncogenesis. Because epigenetic alterations were targetable, there was a rare opportunity to establish new therapy options for both UM and RB with these aberrant epigenetic modifications and to improve current treatment paradigms. They sought to review the research results on pertinent epigenetics. Here, investigators: conduct a literature review with a focus on epigenetic modifications, such as DNA methylation, histone modifications, RNA modifications, noncoding RNAs, and an abnormal chromosomal architecture; they go into detail about the regulatory role of epigenetic modifications in biological processes during tumorigenesis; and suggest promising therapeutic candidates for epigenetic targets and update the list of epigenetic medications for the treatment of U In the end, their goal was to describe the epigenetic environment that supported primary intraocular malignant carcinogenesis and to pinpoint possible epigenetic therapeutic targets for these tumors.

Source: sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1350946221000914