This study states that Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder of the brain, clinically characterised by cognitive deficits that gradually worsen over time. There is, at present, no established cure, or disease-modifying treatments for AD. As life expectancy increases globally, the number of individuals suffering from the disease is projected to increase substantially. Cumulative evidence indicates that AD neuropathological process is initiated several years, if not decades, before clinical signs are evident in patients, and diagnosis made. While several imaging, cognitive, CSF and blood-based biomarkers have been proposed for the early detection of AD; their sensitivity and specificity in the symptomatic stages is highly variable and it is difficult to justify their use in even earlier, pre-clinical stages of the disease. Research has identified potentially measurable functional, structural, metabolic and vascular changes in the retina during early stages of AD. Retina offers a distinctively accessible insight into brain pathology and current and developing ophthalmic technologies have provided us with the possibility of detecting and characterising subtle, disease-related changes. Recent human and animal model studies have further provided mechanistic insights into the biochemical pathways that are altered in the retina in disease, including amyloid and tau deposition.

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