AIFRS is an aggressive, potentially fatal disease that can spread rapidly to the orbit and intracranial structures, causing significant mortality and morbidity.

This study presents a 10-year experience from a tertiary academic medical center of patients presenting with AIFRS. Researchers analyzed the data on presentation, mortality rate, comorbidities, surgical, and medical management.

Researchers identified a total of 34 patients. In our series, mortality was 61.8%, excluding patients who were lost to follow-up. The most common presenting symptoms included facial pain, ophthalmologic complaints, headaches, and proptosis. Only 4 of the 34 patients did not undergo surgical intervention, as they were not deemed surgical candidates; they all succumbed to their disease. Fungal species isolated from culture included Aspergillus, Mucor/Rhizopus, Candida, Cunninghamella Scedosporium boydii, Paecilomyces, and Scopulariopsis. Medical therapies included intravenous amphotericin B, caspofungin, posaconazole, voriconazole, isavuconazole, and micafungin.

The present study associated AIFRS after analyzing the 61.8% mortality in a series of 34 patients over the past ten years. Early diagnosis and rapid and aggressive surgical and medical management are necessary for optimal outcomes in this devastating disease.