In order to reduce the likelihood of a surgical site infection (SSI) occurring after dermatologic surgery, it is important first to identify any potential risk factors. The purpose of this study is to examine the potential associations between SSI and various procedural parameters. The databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, and trial registrations were used in this comprehensive literature assessment. Risk bias was measured using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. If necessary, the authors used random effects models to compute risk factors and conduct a meta-analysis. However, data were narratively summarised when possible. There were a total of 15 observational studies that analyzed 25,928 operations. A total of 7 studies were of high quality, 2 were average, and 6 were subpar. Higher rates of SSI were observed after procedures involving local flaps (risk ratio [RR] 3.26, 95% CI 1.92-5.53) and skin grafting (risk ratio [RR] 2.95, 95% CI 1.37-6.34). The risk of infection was 34% lower when a simple closure was used (RR 0.34, 95% CI 0.25-0.46). With regards to SSI, second-intention healing was not linked to an increased risk (RR 1.82, 95% CI 0.40-8.35). It’s possible that the SSI rate wouldn’t change if patients were allowed to wait longer to close their wounds. The greater the degree of contamination before surgery, the higher the potential for infection. Excisions more than 20 mm and the use of surgical drains may both increase the risk of SSI. However, the evidence connecting these 2 factors is weak. SSIs are more likely to occur after procedures involving local flaps, skin grafting, or severely contaminated surgical sites. Infection after surgery is not linked to delayed or second intention recovery.

 

Source: journals.lww.com/dermatologicsurgery/Abstract/2022/10000/Procedure_Related_Risk_Factors_for_Surgical_Site.5.aspx