Continued research into food protein-induced allergic proctocolitis (FPIAP) will lead to the development of diagnostic tests and therapies. Researchers wanted to pinpoint the clinical characteristics and natural course of the disease in a broad group of individuals. In addition, because influencing parameters have not yet been discovered, they explored the predicted risk variables for the persistent course. Infants were included who were hospitalized to 5 separate allergy or gastroenterology outpatient clinics with rectal bleeding and a diagnosis of dietary protein-induced allergic proctocolitis. The clinical characteristics, laboratory testing, and prognosis were all examined. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify risk variables for a persistent course. Cow’s milk was the most prevalent trigger among the 257 babies, with 50.2 percent being females. In comparison to the single-food allergy group, 24% of the patients had multiple food allergies, as well as more prevalent antibiotic usage, atopic dermatitis, asthma, colic, and IgE sensitization. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, the presence of colic, IgE sensitization, and allergy to numerous foods was identified as risk factors for illness progression beyond 1 year of age. 

Although most children develop tolerance by the age of one year, IgE sensitization, food allergies, and the presence of colic were risk factors for a prolonged course and late tolerance. These youngsters may require more attention and longer monitoring in this setting.