Assisted human reproduction (AHR) is the procedure in which eggs, sperms, or both are handled outside the human body. This helps couples who aren’t able to conceive naturally, but recent studies have indicated a higher risk of prostate cancer in men fathering through assisted reproduction. This study aims to compare the risk of prostate cancer in men achieving fatherhood through assisted reproduction.

This is a national register-based cohort study conducted in Sweden. It included 1,181,490 liveborn children to the same number of fathers. Fathers were grouped according to the mode of conception: 35,050 by assisted reproduction (20,168 by in-vitro fertilization (IVF) and 14,882 by intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)) and 1,145,990 by natural conception. The primary outcome was a prostate cancer diagnosis.

Out of all participants, 77 (0.37%) )of who conceived through IVF, 63 (0.28%) through ICSI, and 3,244 (0.28%) were diagnosed by prostate cancer. The mean age at onset was 55.9, 55.1, and 57.1 years, respectively. Men who became fathers through assisted reproduction had a slightly elevated risk of prostate cancer compared to those who achieved fatherhood through natural conception.

The research concluded that men who became fathers through assisted reproduction were at a statistically higher risk for early-onset prostate cancer.