The incidence of type-2 diabetes is known to be significantly linked with diet, but the exact associations are still unclear. This study aims to investigate the evidence of associations between dietary factors and the incidence of type-2 diabetes.
This is an umbrella review of systematic reviews with meta-analyses of prospective observational studies based on datasets of Embase, Web of Science, and PubMed. The study included a total of 53 publications indicating associations between the incidence of type-2 diabetes and dietary behaviors or diet quality indices. The primary outcome of the study was the incidence of type-2 diabetes in association with dietary intake.
The study included a total of 153 adjusted summary hazard ratios on dietary behaviors (n=12), food groups and foods (n=56), macronutrients (n=32), micronutrients (n=31), and beverages (n=10). The researchers reported an inverse association between type-2 diabetes and the consumption of whole grains and a moderate intake of alcohol. The evidence suggested a positive association between type-2 diabetes and the higher intake of red meat, processed meat, bacon, and sugar-sweetened beverages.
The research concluded that the risk of type-2 diabetes is positively associated with the intake of red meat, processed meat, bacon, and sugary beverages; and inversely associated with the consumption of whole grains and moderate amounts of alcohol.