Self-management programs have the potential to improve glycemic control, weight management, blood lipids, self-management behaviors, self- efficacy, and diabetes-related distress of people with T2D receiving insulin injection, according to a study published in the International Journal of Clinical Practice. Investigators included data from all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials examining the effective- ness of self-management programs. They includ- ed nine RCTs involving 2,613 participants. At post-intervention, meta-analysis results showed that self-management programs significantly improved glycated hemoglobin A1C (mean dif- ference [MD], -0.21; 95% CI, -0.29 to -0.12), self-management behaviors (standardized MD [SMD], 0.23; 95% CI, 0.12 to 0.33), and self- efficacy (SMD, 0.20; 95% CI, 0.09 to 0.31). Only one intensive lifestyle intervention report- ed significant improvements in body weight and waist circumference. Three RCTs demon- strated significant improvements in BMI com- pared with the control group. Only one study demonstrated significant improvements in total cholesterol and triglycerides in favor of the inter- vention group. At 6 months post-intervention, pooled results of two studies revealed decreased diabetes-related distress (MD, -2.98; 95% CI, -5.15 to -0.82). No significant changes in blood pressure, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, depression, and anxiety were found. The study au- thors noted that more rigorous experimental trials are warranted to examine the effectiveness of self- management programs and maintenance.