This study was done to investigate relationships between IgE antibody responses against peanut and hazelnut components, airway and systemic inflammation markers, lung function parameters, and reported food hypersensitivity in a cohort of asthmatic children and young adults.

408 asthmatic individuals were investigated. Information on hypersensitivity symptoms upon intake of peanut or hazelnut were recorded in a standardized questionnaire. FeNO, B-Eos, spirometry, methacholine challenge outcome, and IgE antibodies to peanut and hazelnut allergens were measured by standard clinical and laboratory methods.

Levels of FeNO correlated with levels of IgE to storage proteins in children, but not in adults. Levels of B-Eos correlated with levels of IgE to allergen components investigated in children, but only to levels of IgE to storage proteins in adults. Anaphylaxis and skin reactions upon intake of peanuts or hazelnuts were more often reported among subjects sensitized to the respective storage proteins than among those with only pollen-related cross-reactive sensitization.

The study concluded through its findings that the sensitization to peanut and hazelnut storage proteins was associated with higher levels of inflammation markers and food hypersensitivity symptoms in this population of subjects with asthma.