Serum uric acid (SUA) levels indicate the amount of uric acid present in the blood. Higher SUA levels have been associated with an increased risk of hyperuricemia and kidney stones, but the overall health outcomes are not clear. This study aims to identify the multiple health outcomes associated with SUA levels.

This umbrella review included 15 systematic reviews and 144 meta-analyses from various datasets. The eligible studies examined associations between SUA levels and health outcomes, along with outcomes related to SUA-lowering treatment. The primary outcome of the study was adverse health outcomes.

The findings reported a total of 136 unique health outcomes. No clinically significant associations were discovered between SUA levels and the risk of heart failure, hypertension, impaired fasting glucose or diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and coronary heart disease mortality. Higher SUA levels were also found to be associated with an increased risk of gout. SUA-lowering treatment was associated with a reduced risk of nephrolithiasis recurrence. The evidence of the relationship between SUA levels and hypertension and chronic kidney disease was concordant.

The research concluded only the evidence for high SUA levels and the risk of gout and SUA-lowering treatment, and the reduced risk of nephrolithiasis recurrence was confirmed.