This study states that Concentric and eccentric cardiac hypertrophy are associated with pressure and volume overload, respectively, in cardiovascular disease both conferring an increased risk of heart failure. These contrasting forms of hypertrophy are characterized by asymmetrical growth of the cardiac myocyte in mainly width or length, respectively. The molecular mechanisms determining myocyte preferential growth in width versus length remain poorly understood. Identification of the mechanisms governing asymmetrical myocyte growth could provide new therapeutic targets for the prevention or treatment of heart failure. Primary adult rat ventricular myocytes, adeno-associated virus (AAV)–mediated gene delivery in mice, and human tissue samples were used to define a regulatory pathway controlling pathological myocyte hypertrophy. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays with sequencing and precision nuclear run-on sequencing were used to define a transcriptional mechanism. We report that asymmetrical cardiac myocyte hypertrophy is modulated by SRF (serum response factor) phosphorylation, constituting an epigenomic switch balancing the growth in width versus length of adult ventricular myocytes in vitro and in vivo. SRF Ser103 phosphorylation is bidirectionally regulated by RSK3 (p90 ribosomal S6 kinase type 3) and PP2A (protein phosphatase 2A) at signalosomes organized by the scaffold protein mAKAPβ (muscle A-kinase anchoring protein β), such that increased SRF phosphorylation activates AP-1 (activator protein-1)-dependent enhancers that direct myocyte growth in width. AAV are used to express in vivo mAKAPβ-derived RSK3 and PP2A anchoring disruptor peptides that block the association of the enzymes with the mAKAPβ scaffold.

Reference-https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.119.044805