The following is a summary of “Emergency department burr hole simulation using 3D-printed model,” published in the September 2023 issue of Emergency Medicine by Duvvi, et al.
Traumatic epidural hematoma (EDH), capable of displacing brain tissue and elevating intracranial pressure (ICP), presents a life-threatening scenario necessitating prompt intervention. In exceptional cases, Emergency Physicians (EPs) may resort to skull trephination as a temporary measure to alleviate ICP. For a study, researchers sought to assess the comfort levels of Emergency Medicine (EM) residents in executing burr holes in the emergency department (ED) and to evaluate their challenges. Additionally, it seeks to gauge the residents’ comfort levels before and after engaging in simulated EDH cases.
Using a 3D-printed skull and electrical and manual simulation drills, subjective comfort levels were recorded pre and post-procedure. Objective procedural skills were also assessed, including the time required to complete the drill.
Twenty EM residents participated in the simulation study, achieving a median perforation time of 4 seconds for the electric drill and 10 seconds for the manual drill. Comfort levels of 5 and above were reported by 12 participants for the manual drill and 17 participants for the electric drill. The mild difficulty was observed in six participants, and two faced moderate difficulty in handling both the manual and electric drill. Most residents completed both procedures with a single attempt. Three participants reported an overall comfort level above 5 before the simulation, increasing to 13 participants post-simulation.
The utilization of a 3D-printed model facilitated the ED burr hole simulation, allowing residents to perform the procedure with minimal difficulties. This suggested the effectiveness of the simulation in enhancing residents’ comfort and skills in addressing EDH scenarios.