Current and former smokers face worse outcomes while undergoing dialysis, according to a study published online in Nephrology. Kamal Sud, MD, and colleagues used data from 56,512 adults on dialysis. Former and current smokers had a higher risk for all-cause mortality (HRs, 1.10 and 1.22, respectively), as well as a higher risk for cardiovascular disease mortality (HRs, 1.13 and 1.23, respectively). Similarly, smoking was associated with higher mortality from respiratory failure among current (HR, 1.59) and former (HR, 1.33) smokers. “This study underlines the negative impact of smoking in [the] dialysis population,” Dr. Sud and colleagues wrote. “Evidence that smokers have a higher risk of developing cardiovascular disease and cancers while on dialysis as compared to never-smokers was added to the literature. New guidelines and preventive measures should be designed according to different age groups.”