This study states that We evaluated the long-term prognosis of synchronous multiple primary lung cancer (SMPLC) patients after surgical treatment and explored prognostic factors for overall survival (OS).

A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed regarding the surgical prognosis of SMPLC. A literature search was performed using online databases. All studies were rigorously categorized following the 8th edition of the tumor, node, metastasis classification (TNM) staging rules for multiple lung cancers: SMPLC and multifocal ground-glass/lepidic (GG/L) lung cancers. Five-year OS after surgery was pooled, and hazard ratios (HRs) for prognostic factors were synthesized. Specific subgroup analysis and sensitivity analysis were conducted (PROSPERO registration CRD42019142420).

An analysis of 26 studies including 1788 patients was performed. The pooled 5-year OS was 45% (95% confidence interval [CI], 37-53) of true SMPLC patients and 62% (95% CI, 57-67) of patients with pathologic stage I disease, which was different from the 5-year OS of 93% (95% CI, 85-100) of patients with multifocal GG/L lung cancers. Poor prognostic factors for SMPLC were lymph node metastasis (HR = 2.36; 95% CI, 1.75-3.20; P < .001) and pneumonectomy (HR = 2.96; 95% CI, 1.36-6.45; P = .006], whereas histology (HR = 1.11; 95% CI, 0.82-1.50; P = .508), laterality (HR = 1.16; 95% CI, 0.93-1.44, P = .190), sublobar resection (HR = 1.29; 95% CI, 0.90-1.84; P = .159), and adjuvant therapy (HR = 1.07; 95% CI, 0.64-1.80; P = .791) were not found to influence the outcome. The long-term prognosis of SMPLC patients after surgery is acceptable, especially in patients with early-stage disease. Sublobar resection can be applied, although pneumonectomy should be avoided. Advanced criteria are needed to diagnose SMPLC and distinguish it from multifocal GG/L lung cancer to perform accurate surgical evaluation.

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