The following is the summary of “Inborn errors of immunity underlying a susceptibility to pyogenic infections: from innate immune system deficiency to complex phenotypes” published in the November 2022 issue of Clinical Microbiology and Infection by Conti, et al.

Clinical symptoms caused by pyogenic bacteria are diverse, ranging from frequent and mild respiratory and skin infections to the life-threatening localized or systemic infections, such as sepsis and severe abscesses. Some persons with the virus still have severe symptoms even though immunization and good antibiotic treatment are widely available. Their goal is to provide a concise overview of the literature on the topic of inherited immunodeficiencies that put individuals at risk for life-threatening pyogenic infections.

The literature on human genetic susceptibility to pyogenic infections included case series, review papers, and primary research. In addition, researchers discuss host-associated variables such as deficiencies in important immune system components like neutrophils, complement, immunoglobulin, and spleen function, as well as emerging monogenic illnesses that lead to unique sensitivity to pyogenic infection. Specifically, a small spectrum of bacterial infections is often predisposed to by a deficit in the innate immune system involving toll-like receptors and related signals in otherwise healthy persons, which makes a diagnosis more difficult to suspect and confirm.

Deficiencies in interleukin-6 or -17 signaling, common in more complex disorders such as hyper IgE syndrome, show how crucial these pathways are for regulating bacterial infections. Knowledge of these disorders is crucial in clinical practice, especially in the pediatric environment, to prevent a potentially fatal diagnostic delay, establish the best possible treatment, and prevent serious consequences.