Bronchiolitis is one of the most common reasons for hospitalization among infants in developed countries. While international bronchiolitis guidelines recommend supportive care, significant variation in practice continues to exist. The objective of this study is to assess the effectiveness of targeted interventions compared with passive dissemination in infants with bronchiolitis.

This international, multicenter cluster, randomized trial included a total of 8,003 infants for the three bronchiolitis seasons before the implementation period and 3,727 infants for the implementation period. The interventions included site-based clinical leads, targeted educational delivery, stakeholder meetings, and a train-the-trainer workshop. The primary endpoint of the study was compliance during the first 24 hours of care without the use of albuterol, antibiotics, antibiotics, and chest radiography.

The findings suggested that the baseline data collected before the implementation period was similar to that collected during the implementation period. Compliance with recommendations was 85.1% in the intervention hospitals compared to 73.0% in control hospitals. The analysis was by the intention to treat, and the data were collected from 26 hospitals.

The research concluded that target interventions resulted in an improvement in treatment among infants with bronchiolitis. The findings of this study can have crucial implications for the management and intervention of the disease in infants.