This research states that Short telomere length is a risk factor for age-related disease, but it is also associated with reduced hippocampal volumes, age-related cognitive decline and psychiatric disorder risk. Patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder, have an average life expectancy approximately a decade lower than the rest of the population. This statistic primarily reflects the higher prevalence of comorbid age-related diseases, including coronary artery disease, diabetes and dementia, which contribute to early mortality.  The current study explored whether telomere shortening might have an influence on cognitive function and psychiatric disorder pathophysiology, via its hypothesised effects on adult hippocampal neurogenesis. We modelled telomere shortening in human hippocampal progenitor cells in vitro using a serial passaging protocol that mimics the end-replication problem. Collectively, our results suggest that telomere shortening could represent a mechanism that moderates the proliferative capacity of human hippocampal progenitors, which may subsequently impact on human cognitive function and psychiatric disorder pathophysiology. Hence we conclude that Future work should consider whether leukocyte telomere length could act as a useful peripheral biomarker to estimate changes in the rates of hippocampal neurogenesis in vivo, and whether environmental interventions could be used to simultaneously prevent premature telomere shortening and promote hippocampal progenitor proliferation, as we age.