For a study, researchers sought to find out whether pulmonary function tests and type-1 diabetes (T1D) are related.

They carried out a meta-analysis after a thorough literature search. They used a random effects model and the inverse variance approach to determine the impact estimate as the mean difference (MD) and 95% CI. By using the I2 statistic, they determined the heterogeneity and ran a meta-regression analysis by age, sex, body mass index (BMI), smoking, and geographic location. Additionally, they performed a sensitivity analysis based on the studies’ publication dates, the number of T1D participants, and the research’s overall quality, eliminating the study with the highest weight in the impact.

A total of 1,274 T1D patients and 1,353 control individuals were enrolled in the 39 research that made up the meta-analysis, including one longitudinal, 35 case-control, 3 cross-sectional, and 35 case-control investigations. The pooled MD (95% CI) for the anticipated percentage of FEV1, FVC, FEF25-75%,PEF, and DLCO were, respectively, -6.40 (95% CI -8.55, -4.25; P< 0.001), -6.39 (95% CI -8.46, -4.33; P< 0.001), -6.14 (95%CI -10.73, -1.56; P = 0.009), −9.32 (95% CI -14.15, −4.50; P = 0.0002) and −0.64 (95% CI -1.12, −0.16; P = 0.008), respectively. FEV1/FVC ratio (-0.33 95%CI -1.70, 1.03; P = 0.28) did not differ across groups. Widespread heterogeneity was present. According to the meta-regression analysis, neither patient age, sex, BMI, smoking, nor geographic location could be used to account for the variability between trials. In the sensitivity analysis, the results were consistent.

Regardless of age, sex, smoking, BMI, or location, T1D is linked to decreased pulmonary function. Studies over a longer period of time were required to examine how people with T1D and compromised pulmonary function fare.