With the long-standing dispute regarding the use of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) for prostate cancer detection, assessment, and monitoring, there is a need for a minimally invasive procedure to identify and risk-stratify these individuals. Furthermore, in an effort to reduce the number of unnecessary biopsies and identify clinically significant prostate cancer (csPCa), there has been a shift in practice toward the use of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) in conjunction with a prostate cancer diagnosis and management decision-making. Researchers described the findings on the use of mpMRI in the identification, assessment, and surveillance of csPCa in a review.

A pre-biopsy mpMRI may rule out minor prostate tumors, lowering the proportion of individuals who require a biopsy, according to recent prospective clinical studies. The anatomic information gleaned from this pre-biopsy mpMRIs which are done during MRI fusion biopsy in csPCa improves pathologic staging in terms of Gleason scores. In terms of active monitoring, prospective trials indicate that mpMRI and fusion biopsy have little to no clinical usefulness in the surveillance of prostate cancer, despite contradictory findings from retrospective research.

Recent experiments indicated that mpMRI can be useful in the identification and assessment of csPCa. mpMRI’s optimal function in active surveillance still remains restricted.