There exist information gaps in evidence-based research on the burden of vaccine-preventable illnesses among HIV-infected and HIV-exposed children in Sub-Saharan Africa aged 18 years. As a result, determining the trend and burden of vaccine-preventable illnesses is critical. Researchers conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the incidence, prevalence, and case-fatality rates (CFR) of vaccine-preventable illnesses among HIV-infected and HIV-exposed children in Sub-Saharan Africa. The incidence of vaccine-preventable illnesses among HIV-infected and HIV-exposed children was also studied. Nine tuberculosis (TB) studies were combined to establish an overall incidence rate of 60 per 1,000 child-years. Pneumococcal infections occurred at a rate of 109–1509 per 100,000 people, whereas pertussis occurred at a rate of 2.9–3.7 per 1000 child-years. Twenty-two TB prevalence studies revealed a 16 percent estimated prevalence. A total of fifteen prevalence studies on hepatitis B infection were combined, yielding an estimated prevalence of 5%. Pneumococcal infections had a pooled incidence of 2%, whereas rotavirus diarrhoea had a prevalence of 13%. Twenty-nine TB studies were combined to get an overall CFR estimate of 17%, whereas pneumococcal infections in HIV-infected and exposed children were pooled to yield a rate of 15%.
Among HIV-infected and HIV-exposed children, some vaccine-preventable illnesses continue to have high incidences, prevalence, and CFR. There is also a scarcity of research data on the prevalence of numerous vaccine-preventable illnesses among HIV-infected and exposed children, indicating the necessity for more study in this field.