High blood pressure is one of the leading risk factors for cardiovascular disease. A higher intake of dietary sodium is associated with higher blood pressure levels in humans. The objective of this study is to examine the relation between the reduction in dietary sodium and blood pressure change.
This is a systematic review and meta-analysis study following PRISMA guidelines. The study included randomized trials comparing different levels of sodium intake and the corresponding effects of the blood pressure levels of 12,197 participants across 133 studies. The estimates of sodium intake were made using 24-hour urinary sodium excretion.
It was found that each 550 mmol reduction in 24-hour sodium excretion was associated with a 1.10mm Hg reduction in systolic blood pressure and 0.33 mm HG reduction in diastolic blood pressure. For the same reduction in 24-hour urinary sodium, there was a more significant SBP reduction in older people, non-white people, and higher baseline SBP levels.
The research concluded that the magnitude of blood pressure-lowering was achieved with a reduction in sodium intake. The effect was more profound on older people, non-white populations, and those with higher blood pressure. Therefore, people with acute high blood pressure levels can reduce their dietary sodium intake to get their BP levels in balance.