Researchers synthesize the most recent papers on the genetic and environmental factors of allergic rhinitis in this review. Recent advancements in genetic technology and bioinformatics have permitted simultaneous unbiased investigation of the complete genome in terms of DNA sequence variations, epigenetic changes, and gene expression, therefore revealing functional correlations for DNA variants and phenotypes. As a result, novel mitochondrial and B-lymphocyte metabolism genes have been linked to allergic rhinitis phenotypes. Epidemiological studies have lately revealed an increased risk of developing allergic rhinitis in children of all ages with reduced agricultural exposure and in children with few older siblings. Climate change appears to have impacted pollen exposure as well as pollen-induced allergy illness. Finally, occupational rhinitis is becoming more acknowledged as a significant societal burden.
In conclusion, new high throughput genetics research methods have revealed previously unknown mechanisms, such as mitochondrial metabolism, that may influence the risk of developing allergic rhinitis. Furthermore, current environmental variables shown to affect the likelihood of developing allergy rhinitis include agricultural exposure, pollution, occupational agents, and climatic changes.