The HIS mouse strain has been replaced (DRAGA mouse: HLA-A2. HLA-DR4. RAG1 KO. IL-2Rαc KO. NOD) by a functioning, long-lasting HIS through a cord blood infusion of CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells (HSC). HIS has been rebuilt by a human immune system. In this case, the researchers show that inducible and transmissible H1N1 and H3N2 infections of viral influenza A (IAV) may be sustained by DRAGA mice. The DRAGA female mouse was much more durable than male to the infection with H3N2/Aichi, but not to sub-lethal infections such as H3N2/Hong Kong or H3N2/Victoria.

Both human and murine Factor 8 transcripts of mRNA in the injured lung tissues but not in DRAGA mice livers were consistently related with extensive pulmonary haemorrhagic regions, leading to severe H1N1/PR8 infection. The DRAGA infected mouse mounted an anti-virus neutralising antibody responsiveness and produced CD103 T cells in the lungs.

These results demonstrate the ability to imitate human pathophysiology and the antiviral immune response more precisely in the DRAGA mouse model for IAV infections in comparison with non-HIS mices.