Cytokines are immunomodulatory proteins that play an essential role in cell signaling. In allergic airway inflammation, complex interactions between innate and adaptive immune cells, as well as structural cells and their cytokines, play critical roles. Researchers review current research on the possible involvement of known and recently discovered helper T cells and epithelial cell-derived cytokines [interleukin (IL)-9, IL-17, IL-22, IL-25, and IL-33] in allergic rhinitis and asthma. Although T-helper (Th)2 cells were thought to be the primary orchestrators of allergic airway inflammation, new research has shown the possible role of other helper T cells and their cytokines in this process. Th17 cells are thought to have a role in allergic rhinitis, asthma, and chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps. Th9 cells, an IL-9-producing subset, Th22 cells, which primarily secrete IL-22, IL-13, tumor necrosis factor-, and Th25 cells, which produce IL-25 and epithelial cell-derived thymic stromal lymphopoietin, are thought to be important for the initiation of allergic reactions and inducing airway inflammation.

In allergic rhinitis and asthma, a novel paradigm of cytokine interaction is crucial in regulating the allergic inflammatory response. Potential therapeutic uses arising from these cytokines’ functions are promising, but further research is required.