It has been hypothesized that biodiversity loss reduces the interaction of environmental and human microbiotas. As a result, individuals may develop immunological dysfunction and decreased tolerance mechanisms. That is, exposure to environmental variety is thought to protect against allergies. Direct evidence relating contact with biodiversity and the risk of allergy, on the other hand, has been insufficient. In this review, researchers look at the most recent findings on the allergy biodiversity hypothesis. What people eat, drink, inhale, and touch all contribute to the broad scheme of host–microbial interaction required for a balanced, robust immune system to establish and sustain a healthy identification between hazardous and innocuous invaders. Microbes can either connect directly with host immune cells or impact the host through metabolism, which might result in epigenetic changes. Our living environment has a significant impact on this process. Although early exposure to varied, beneficial bacteria from the environment has been repeatedly proven to be critical, research on immigrants show that conditions later in life can also be significant.

They continue to lack a more thorough knowledge of the relationship between natural, environmental biodiversity, and health, necessitating fresh, innovative, and long-term research. The findings should be used to inform policy and urban planning efforts aimed at increasing human contact with natural biodiversity and encouraging a healthy lifestyle.