The aim is to To describe the clinical characteristics, treatment, and outcomes of a multinational cohort of patients with macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) and thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA).

International pediatric rheumatologists were asked to collect retrospectively the data of patients with the co-occurrence of MAS and TMA. Clinical and laboratory features of patients with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA)-associated MAS and TMA were compared with those of an historical cohort of patients with sJIA and MAS.

Twenty-three patients with MAS and TMA were enrolled: 17 had sJIA, 2 systemic lupus erythematosus, 1 juvenile dermatomyositis, 1 mixed connective tissue disease, and 2 undifferentiated connective tissue disease. Compared with the historical cohort of MAS, patients with sJIA with coexistent MAS and TMA had higher frequencies of renal failure and neurologic involvement, hemorrhage, jaundice, and respiratory symptoms, as well as more severe anemia and thrombocytopenia, higher levels of alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, bilirubin and D-dimer, and lower levels of albumin and fibrinogen. They also required admission to the intensive care unit more frequently. Among patients tested, complement abnormalities and reduced ADAMTS13 activity were observed in 64.3% and 44.4% of cases, respectively. All patients received glucocorticoids. Treatment for TMA included plasma-exchange, eculizumab, and rituximab.

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