Elective cesarean section (CS) delivery has been linked to adverse effects on the infant’s immunological and metabolic signals in early life, which can persist into adulthood and increase the risk of developing allergies and diabetes. In this study, investigators investigated the effects of the immediate postnatal transfer of maternal fecal microbiota (FMT) to the newborn on the development of the immune system and the restoration of a normal intestinal microbiome in infants born via CS. About 60 healthy mothers who chose a CS as an elective procedure were recruited and underwent extensive infection screening. To prepare for a transplant a sample of the mother’s feces was collected just before delivery to prepare for a transplant. About 1 group of babies was given a diluted aliquot of their mother’s feces to be given orally in breast milk during the first feeding, whereas the other group was given a placebo in the same fashion. Children were clinically observed for the first 4 weeks of life, then every 2 weeks until they were 8 weeks old, and then every 3 months, 6 months, and once a year after that. Up to 24 months of age, the parents filled out questionnaires. To track the maturation of the body’s main immune cell populations and plasma proteins throughout the first 2 years of life, blood samples were collected at 3, 6, 12, and 24 days of age. For the first time, researchers analyzed the long-term consequences of a maternal fecal transplant on the gut microbiome and the maturation of the immune system in term infants born via CS.

Source: bmcpediatr.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12887-022-03609-3