For a study, TSC-Associated Neuropsychiatric Disorders (TAND) was a set of neuropsychiatric issues that have been linked to Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC). The researchers sought to evaluate TAND symptoms in a group of patients who visited the TSC Center of Excellence at Cincinnati Children’s Hospital and to discover clinically significant profiles based on TAND symptoms. From June 2015 to August 2018, TAND Checklist data was collected from patients seen at the TSC Center of Excellence at Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, and for each TAND symptom, cluster and factor analyses were carried out. The K-means method was then used to empirically identify distinct overall TAND symptom profiles occurring in TSC by calculating factor scores for participants. For 668 patients (37% adults and 63% children), researchers completed 1,545 checklists. With an average of 12 symptoms (out of 29), approximately 90% of patients reported at least 1 TAND symptom which varied from 5 to 60% with most of the symptoms being neuropsychological. According to the analysis, a seven-cluster and seven-factor solution were most effective. K-means cluster analysis produced a seven-profile solution, varying from low to high symptom burden. This was the first study to reveal natural phenotypic traits of TAND symptoms. Specific TAND subpopulations with similar profiles might have helped researchers better comprehend TAND biology and improve the efficacy of more targeted therapies.
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