Diabetes can lead to several complications, such as cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, and eye damage. However, the complications of type-1 and type-2 diabetes in childhood and adolescence are unknown. The objective of this study is to determine the risk factors in teenage and adulthood associated with the onset of type-1 and 2 diabetes in childhood or adolescence.
This is an observational study that includes 2,018 participants younger than 20 years and diagnosed with diabetes during childhood or adolescence (1,746 with type-1 diabetes, 272 with type-2). The primary outcomes of the study were the onset of diabetic kidney disease, arterial stiffness, retinopathy, hypertension, peripheral neuropathy, and cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy.
When compared with type-1 diabetes, participants with type-2 diabetes had a higher risk of diabetic kidney disease (19.9% vs. 5.8%), retinopathy (9.1% vs. 5.6%), peripheral neuropathy (17.7%), hypertension (21.6%), and arterial stiffness (47.4%). No significant difference between cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy was found (15.7% vs. 14.5%).
The research concluded that the risk of complications among children and adolescents diagnosed with type-2 diabetes is higher than compared to type-1 diabetes. However, the risk of complications is frequent in both groups, with the common complications being diabetic kidney disease, retinopathy, hypertension, and arterial stiffness.