Adverse events (AE) have been linked to unintended extubation (UE). Those preterm children with at least one UE were compared to those with none, clinically speaking. A matched cohort research compared the outcomes of ventilated preterm children born at less than 32 weeks who had UE with those who did not. Time spent on mechanical ventilation after matching, time spent in the hospital, the incidence of treatment-required retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), and the presence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) were the primary endpoints. Between the 2 groups, there were a total of 47 newborns. Birth weight, gestational age, and the amount of time each group spent on mechanical ventilation before UE were all comparable. Infants who suffered UE were more likely to have prolonged periods of mechanical breathing after matching (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 14.8 [11.2-18.4], P=<.001), longer hospital stays (16.4 [3.7-29.2], P=.01), and more severe cases of retinopathy of prematurity (aOR 6.7 [1.7-27.0], P=.007). Neither ROP nor BPD was linked with UE after controlling for the total time spent on mechanical ventilation. However, the risks of ROP (aOR 1.1 [1.0-1.2], P=.004) and BPD (aOR 1.5 [1.1-2.1], P=.01) were increased in infants who required mechanical ventilation for longer periods of time. Infants with UE were more likely to spend more time in the hospital and have a longer period of mechanical ventilation, ROP, and BPD, and this was true even when taking into account infants who had UE and were handled with noninvasive respiratory support.
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