For a study, researchers sought to clarify how the urine metabolome contributed to the development of urinary stone disease (USD).

Comparative studies of calcium-based stones (CBS) and spot urine samples from individuals with a history of USD, with or without urinary stone activity based on radiologic imaging, were conducted using untargeted metabolomics. The composition and radiography stone activity of the stone and urine metabolomes were stratified, respectively. Additionally, we measured the levels of extremely abundant metabolites that were found in calcium oxalate (CaOx) or calcium phosphate (CaPhos) stones and that were also noticeably elevated in the urine of people who were active stone formers (SF) as opposed to people who were not. The data were utilized to distinguish between the passive absorption of biomolecules within the stone matrix and the direct participation of urine metabolites in lithogenesis.

Based on the 2 types of CBS and radiographic stone activity, urinary metabolomes could be distinguished. The abundance of 14 metabolites in the urine of active SF, which were also extremely abundant in both CaOx & CaPhos stones, suggested a possible role for these metabolites in lithogenesis and was the primary factor driving stratification by radiologic stone activity. They created a model using the combination of these 14 metabolites, which accurately identified 73% of the patients in a prospectively recruited sample as having active or inactive SF.

According to the available information, some urine metabolites may directly contribute to the development of urinary stones, and active SF may excrete more lithogenic metabolites than non-active individuals. Future research was required to verify these results and determine the causal pathways connected to these metabolites.