Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are members of a class of drugs used to reduce acid production in the stomach. The effects of PPIs on mortality among patients are unknown. This study aims to investigate the incidence of all-cause and cause-specific mortality among patients taking PPIs.

This is a longitudinal observational cohort study that included a total of 157,625 PPI users and 56,842 H2 blockers. The primary outcome of the study was all-cause and cause-specific mortality associated with taking PPIs. 

A total of 45.20 excess deaths per 1,000 patients taking PPIs were reported. Adverse health outcomes associated with taking PPIs were circulatory system diseases (17.47 per 1,000 patients), neoplasms (12.94), infectious diseases (4.20), and genitourinary system diseases (6.25) were linked with taking PPIs. There was a positive relationship between the duration and dose of PPIs and all-cause mortality and death due to circulatory system diseases, neoplasms, and genitourinary system diseases. Subanalysis indicated that cause-specific mortality was associated with cardiovascular disease (15.48), chronic kidney disease (4.74), and upper gastrointestinal cancer (3.12).

The research concluded that taking PPIs was associated with a small rise in all-cause and cause-specific mortality, mainly due to cardiovascular, chronic kidney, and gastrointestinal diseases.