Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a condition characterized by the formation of a blood clot in the deep veins of the leg, groin, or arm. VTE is associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular events, but the exact risk factors are not known. This study aims to ascertain the association of cardiovascular risk factors with VTE, deep vein thrombosis (DVT), and pulmonary embolism (PE).
This cohort study included a total of 731,728 participants from the Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration (ERFC). The cardiovascular risk factors in the participants were evaluated. The primary outcomes of the study were fatal incident outcomes, including VTE and coronary heart disease (CHD).
The risk factors for VTE were older age, current smoking, and BMI. For these factors, the hazard ratios were similar for both PE and DVT. The HRs were also similar for provoked vs. unprovoked VTE. Adiposity was the only factor that was strongly associated with VTE than CHD. Consistent associations were also confirmed between VTE and diabetes and blood pressure across the participants. However, data on lipid and inflammation markers were limited.
The research concluded that patients with cardiovascular risk factors, like old age, smoking, and adiposity, were at a higher risk of developing VTE.