Little is known regarding the impact of preterm on the development of celiac disease later in life (CD). Researchers examined the relationship between very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm and subsequent development of CD autoimmunity (CDA) in 3580 children born between 2000 and 2012, as well as their matched controls, in a retrospective study of real-world data. VLBW prematurity was linked with later development of CDA at a cumulative prevalence of 5.9 per 1000 vs 10.3 per 1000 at a median of 12 years, despite the fact that more former VLBW preterm children were ever tested for CDA. When compared to matched controls, the risk ratio for developing CDA among infants delivered preterm at VLBW was 0.57.

There was no difference in CDA clinical features between the two groups. In conclusion, VLBW preterm infants had a lower chance of developing CDA during infancy and adolescence.