Survivors of adolescent and young adult (AYA) hematological cancers have an increased risk for second malignant neoplasms, hospitalizations, and overall mortality, according to a study published in Frontiers in Oncology. Claudia Vener, MD, and colleagues examined long-term outcomes for AYA survivors of hematologic cancers. Patients diagnosed with a first primary hematologic cancer between 1997 and 2006 in a nationwide population-based cohort of AYA cancer survivors were selected. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs), standardized hospitalization rate ratios (SHRs), and standardized mortality rate ratios (SMRs) were calculated for 5,042 AYA hematological cancer survivors: 1,237 with a leukemia diagnosis and 3,805 with a lymphoma diagnosis. AYA survivors had a significantly increased risk for secondary malignant neoplasms, hospitalizations, and overall mortality (SIR, 2.1; SHR, 1.5; and SMR, 1.4, respectively), with differences seen for leukemia and lymphoma survivors. Infectious diseases, respiratory diseases, and diseases of blood and blood-forming organs had the highest excess risks for hospitalizations. Over time, the morbidity patterns differed by morbidity type.