Haze problem is an important factor threatening human health. PM2.5 is the main culprit haze. 1-Nitropyrene (1-NP) is the main nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, the toxic component of PM2.5 particles. The effects of 1-NP on various organs and reproductive health have been extensively and deeply studied, but the effects of 1-NP on embryo implantation and endometrial receptivity remain to be determined. The purpose of this study was to investigate the adverse effects of 1-NP on mouse embryo implantation and human endometrial receptivity. In early pregnancy, CD1 mice were given 2 mg/kg 1-NP by oral gavage, which resulted in a decreased embryo implantation number on day 5, inhibited leukemic inhibitory factor (LIF)/STAT3 pathway, decreased expression of estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor, and disrupted regulation of uterine cell proliferation. In addition, in a human in vitro implantation model, 1-NP was found to significantly inhibit the adhesion rate between trophoblast spheroids and endometrial epithelial cells, possibly by inhibiting the expression of receptivity molecules in Ishikawa cells. Promoting reactive oxygen species (ROS) production may be an additional mechanism by which it inhibits trophoblast spheroid adhesion. In this study, we used an in vivo mouse pregnancy model and an in vitro human embryo implantation model to demonstrate that 1-NP can impair endometrial receptivity and compromise embryo implantation.
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