Using a nationwide epidemiological database, we aimed to clarify the association of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) with subsequent cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among young adults.
Medical records of 1,180,062 young adults (20-49 years old) without a prior history of CVD and who were not taking antidiabetic medications were extracted from the Japan Medical Data Center. We categorized the study population into four groups: normal, FPG level<100 mg/dL (1,007,747 individuals), normal-high, FPG level of 100-109 mg/dL (126,602 individuals), impaired fasting glucose (IFG), FPG level of 110-125 mg/dL (32,451 individuals), and diabetes mellitus (DM), FPG level ≥126 mg/dL (13,262 individuals). The mean age was 39.7 ± 6.9 years, and 57.0% of the study population were men. Mean follow-up period was 1201 ± 905 days on average. Multivariable Cox regression analysis showed that IFG (hazard ratio [HR]; 1.38) and DM (HR; 2.09) increased the risk of myocardial infarction. Normal-high (HR; 1.11), IFG (HR; 1.18), and DM (HR; 1.59) groups had an elevated angina pectoris risk. DM (HR; 1.31) increased the risk of stroke compared to normal FPG levels. Normal-high levels (HR; 1.10), IFG (HR; 1.22) and DM (HR; 1.58) elevated the risk of heart failure. DM (HR; 1.69) increased the risk of atrial fibrillation.
Our analysis of a nationwide epidemiological database demonstrated a close association of the FPG category with subsequent CVD risk. Our results exemplify the importance of optimal FPG maintenance for the primary prevention of CVD in young adults.