To present two cases of acute non-cirrhotic and non-malignant mesenteric vein thrombosis (MVT) treated with early transcatheter thrombectomy and thrombolysis with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and to review the literature on transcatheter thrombectomy and thrombolytic therapy of such condition.
Two cases of acute MVT treated with transhepatic transcatheter thrombectomy and thrombolysis in addition to systemic anticoagulation upon diagnosis are presented. In addition, a Pubmed literature search was undertaken using keywords acute mesenteric vein thrombosis, thrombolysis and thrombectomy. The inclusion criteria were studies examining the impacts of transcatheter thrombolysis and thrombectomy in the management of acute MVT.
Early transcatheter thrombectomy and thrombolysis achieves technical success in both patients and result in nearly complete recanalization of the venous system, with no recurrent thrombosis to date in follow up. Both patients do not require extensive bowel resection despite extensive thrombus on presentation. However, both patients develop intra-abdominal bleeding requiring blood transfusion and embolization of the transcatheter tract.
Catheter-directed first approach provides a minimal invasive approach for management of non-malignant and non-cirrhotic acute mesenteric thrombosis. It offers the benefits of rapid venous recanalization and avoid massing bowel resection despite extensive thrombosis. Subsequent progression into chronic MVT was also reduced. However, the procedure could lead to bleeding from puncture site and hence embolization of the catheter tract is advised during catheter removal.