Benefits of Peanut Consumption While Breastfeeding

Benefits of Peanut Consumption While Breastfeeding

Findings from recently published studies, including the LEAP study, have led to rapid acceptance of the introduction of peanuts during the first year of life. “This new philosophy is reflected in revised guidelines from national pediatric and allergy societies,” says Meghan Azad, PhD. “However, these recent studies and new guidelines do not address the role of breastfeeding and maternal ingestion of peanut.” For a study published in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Dr. Azad, Tracy Pitt, MD, FRCPC, and colleagues performed a secondary analysis of data from a previous allergy and asthma study that tracked children born in 1995 from birth to age 15. “All infants in the study had an immediate family history of asthma or two relatives with immunoglobulin E-mediated allergic disease. Mothers were randomized during pregnancy to standard care (control) or a multifaceted intervention that included maternal peanut avoidance and delayed introduction of peanut and other allergenic foods. Infants were assessed at multiple time points throughout early childhood and tested for peanut sensitization at age 7.” The researchers found, in this high-risk group of breast-fed children, an association between early peanut introduction in the first year of life and reduced risk of peanut sensitization by age 7. “But the association only occurred if mothers also consumed peanuts while breastfeeding,” stresses Dr. Azad. “Both exposures were necessary for this protective effect to occur.” The study suggests that encouraging peanut consumption while breastfeeding in combination with early direct peanut exposure may decrease the risk of peanut sensitization in high-risk children, according to Dr. Pitt. However, “further research is needed to determine if the current findings for peanut...
American Academy of Dermatology, Feb. 16-20

American Academy of Dermatology, Feb. 16-20

The American Academy of Dermatology’s 2018 Annual Meeting The annual meeting of the American Academy of Dermatology was held from Feb. 16 to 20 in San Diego and attracted more than 15,000 participants from around the world, including clinicians, academicians, allied health professionals, and others interested in dermatology. The conference highlighted recent advances in the diagnosis and management of dermatological conditions. During one presentation, Jeanette Jacknin, M.D., a board-certified dermatologist based in Encinitas, Calif., discussed how the skin’s endocannabinoid system helps to regulate cellular proliferation, differentiation, and cell death. She also addressed how the imbalance of this system may be responsible for the flares of chronic skin conditions, and how the development of targeted cannabinoid therapies may help to control them. “Human tissues have at least two types of cannabinoid receptors: CB1 and CB2. The body makes its own molecules, or endogenous cannabinoids, for these endocannabinoid receptors, and examples include the molecule anandamide, which was discovered in 1992,” Jacknin said. “The CB1 receptors are usually the ones involved with tetrahydrocannabinol euphoria, and the CB2 receptors are usually involved with the medicinal qualities. CB1 receptors are found mainly in the brain, but are also found in the skin, whereas CB2 receptors are mainly found in the skin, other organs, and immune cells, and they respond to cannabidiol and many other cannabinoids. These non-psychoactive cannabinoids are where the anti-inflammatory, pain relieving properties of cannabis reside.” According to Jacknin, there are now about 130 cannabinoids that have been discovered, including cannabidiol, which is the predominant cannabinoid being investigated. “The key conclusion is that cannabidiol from hemp or marijuana is anti-inflammatory. It acts...
Capnography Monitoring Reduces Respiratory Compromise During Procedural Sedation

Capnography Monitoring Reduces Respiratory Compromise During Procedural Sedation

Clinically significant adverse events associated with procedural sedation and analgesia (PSA)—including critical oxygen desaturation, bradycardia, hypotension and cardiac arrest—are relatively uncommon. However, their occasional occurrence should be recognized as integral risks of administering PSA that can be accompanied by severe morbidity or mortality. Most cardiopulmonary events associated with PSA are the result of inadequate ventilation cascading into hypoxia, tissue injury, and cardiac decompensation. This physiological cascade of worsening health status in patients begins with respiratory compromise (RC), a potentially progressive condition that negatively impacts patient ventilatory function and comprises respiratory insufficiency, failure, and arrest. Maintaining patient safety requires monitoring to identify RC promptly and allow interventions that can prevent adverse outcomes. Patient monitoring for RC during PSA typically relies on visual assessment of ventilation and the use of pulse oximetry to identify hypoxemia. As an additional monitoring technology, capnography can be used to measure the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (CO2) in expiratory respiratory gases (end-tidal CO2) and detect increasing levels of CO2. Capnography provides an earlier marker of hypoventilation and impending respiratory compromise, earlier than pulse oximetry can detect hypoxemia.   A Rigorous Meta-Analysis Although the patient safety benefits of capnography monitoring have been noted in prior research, the results of individual studies on its impact on RC during PSA have not been consistent. Furthermore, the results of two previous meta-analyses are conflicting, due to heterogeneity and nonstandard endpoints across the included studies. For a more recent meta-analysis, published in BMJ Open, my colleagues and I placed particular emphasis on maintaining a consistent definition of adverse events across all included studies and used rigorous statistical methodologies to minimize...
Page 1 of 5412345...Last »