The new guidelines for the diagnosis and management of atrial fibrillation (AF) were published by the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) in collaboration with the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery (EACTS) in August 2020. The 2020 guidelines of the ESC on AF summarize the current developments in this field and provide general recommendations for the management of patients with AF based on the principles of evidence-based medicine. Beside the general statements on definition, epidemiology and clinical features of AF, interesting new aspects in screening and diagnosis of AF are also presented. The main novelties of the 2020 guidelines are the proposal of the 4S-AF scheme for a structured characterization of AF that takes the stroke risk, severity of symptoms, severity of AF burden and substrate severity into account. Also new is the ABC approach for improvement of the structured management and treatment results. A further innovation is the introduction of the concept of major risk factors for recurrences in the decision for catheter ablation. This review focuses on the newest and most important recommendations taken from the 2020 ESC guidelines for the diagnosis and management of AF.