Cerebrolysin therapy has the potential to significantly aid in the treatment of a wide variety of debilitating neurological diseases including ischemic strokes, neurodegenerative disorders, and traumatic brain injuries. Although Cerebrolysin is not approved for use in the USA, it is used clinically in over 50 countries worldwide. In this review, we focus on outlining the role that Cerebrolysin has in stimulating the molecular signaling pathways that are critical for neurological regeneration and support. An extensive evaluation of these signaling pathways reveals that Cerebrolysin has the potential to intervene in a diverse array of pathophysiological causes of neurological diseases. In the clinical setting, Cerebrolysin is generally safe for human use and has provided functional improvement when used as an adjunct treatment. However, our literature review revealed inconsistent results, as several clinical studies suggested that Cerebrolysin treatment has minor clinical relevance and did not have significant advantages over a placebo. In conclusion, we found that Cerebrolysin therapy can potentially play a major role in the treatment of many neurological diseases. Nevertheless, there remains much to be elucidated about the efficacy of this treatment for specific neurological conditions, and more robust clinical data is needed to reach a consensus and properly define the therapeutic role of Cerebrolysin.