Melioidosis is a potentially fatal tropical infection caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei. Kidney involvement is possible, but has not been well described.
This study aimed to assess the risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) and its outcomes in melioidosis.
A retrospective observational cohort study was performed. Case records of consecutive patients with culture-confirmed melioidosis, observed from January 1st, 2012 through December 31st, 2019 were analysed for demographics, presence of comorbidities, including chronic kidney disease (CKD), diabetes mellitus (DM), and presence of bacteraemia, sepsis, shock, AKI, and urinary abnormalities. The outcomes we studied were: mortality, need for hospitalisation in an intensive care unit (ICU), duration of hospitalization. We then compared the outcomes between patients with and without AKI.
Of 164 patients, AKI was observed in 59 (35.98%), and haemodialysis was required in eight (13.56%). In the univariate analysis, AKI was associated with CKD (OR 5.83; CI 1.140-29.90, P = 0.03), bacteraemia (OR 8.82; CI 3.67-21.22, P < 0.001) and shock (OR 3.75; CI 1.63-8.65, P = 0.04). In the multivariate analysis, CKD (adjusted OR 10.68; 95% CI 1.66-68.77; P = 0.013) and bacteraemia (adjusted OR 8.22; 95% CI 3.15-21.47, P < 0.001) predicted AKI. AKI was associated with a greater need for ICU care (37.3% vs. 13.3%, P = 0.001), and mortality (32.2% vs. 5.7%, P < 0.001). Mortality increased with increasing AKI stage, i.e. stage 1 (OR 3.52, CI 0.9-13.7, P = 0.07), stage 2 (OR 6.79, CI 1.92-24, P = 0.002) and stage 3 (OR 17.8, CI 5.05-62.8, P < 0.001), however kidney function recovered in survivors. Hyponatremia was observed in 138 patients (84.15%) and isolated urinary abnormalities were seen in 31(18.9%).
AKI is frequent in melioidosis and occurred in 35.9% of our cases. Hyponatremia is likewise common. AKI was predicted by bacteraemia and CKD, and was associated with higher mortality and need for ICU care; however kidney function recovery was observed in survivors.