Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis is a risk factor for cardiovascular death. Observational studies support the benefit of renal revascularization on outcomes in selected patients with high-risk clinical manifestations. In this context, we evaluated the factors associated with long-term mortality after renal artery stenting in patients with severe renal artery stenosis, impaired kidney function and/or uncontrolled hypertension.
The medical records of patients undergoing renal artery stenting between 2004 and 2014 were extracted. Blood pressure and creatinine were recorded at baseline, 24 hours post-stenting and in the one month to one year interval that followed revascularization. Long-term follow-up was performed in March 2020.
The cohort consisted of 65 patients. Median follow-up was 120 months. In the first year after stenting, less patients had chronic kidney disease (CKD) class 3b – 5 as compared to baseline (35.3 vs. 56.9%, p=0.01). The number of patients with controlled blood pressure after revascularization increased with 69.2% (p<0.001). Long-term all-cause mortality reached 44.6%. Age (OR 1.1; 95%CI 1.0-1.2; p=0.01), male gender (OR 7.9; 95%CI 1.9 – 43.5; p=0.008), post-stenting CKD class 3b-5 (OR 5.8; 95%CI 1.5-27.9; p=0.01), and post-revascularization uncontrolled hypertension (OR 8.9; 95%CI 1.7-63.5; p=0.01) were associated with long-term mortality independent of diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease.
Improved CKD class and blood pressure were recorded in the first year after renal artery stenting in patients with severe renal artery stenosis and high-risk clinical manifestations. The lack of improvement in kidney function and blood pressure was independently associated with long-term mortality.