Chronic ulceration of the colon is associated with the activation of TLR4/NF-κB and P2X7R/NLRP3 signaling pathways. We investigated the effect of individual or combined administration of BBG, a P2X7R blocker, and OLT1177, a selective NLRP3 inhibitor, in the dextran sodium sulfate-induced ulcerative colitis (UC) rat model. The ulcerative rats were treated orally with brilliant blue G (BBG) (50 mg/kg/day) or OLT1177 (200 mg/kg/day) or a combination of both. Myd88 and NF-κB levels were measured by ELISA, qRT-PCR, and immunohistochemical staining. Cytokines known to be associated with TLR4/NF-κB or P2X7R/NLRP3 signaling were measured by ELISA. P2X7R and NLRP3 expression were measured by ELISA and qRT-PCR. The administration of BBG or OLT1177 ameliorated the toxic effects of DSS on the colon as they restored normal colonic macroscopic and microscopic morphology. BBG administration, but not OLT1177, reduced the expression of Myd88, NF-κB, IL-6, and TNF-α in addition to lowering P2X7R and oxidative stress levels. Individual BBG or OLT1177 administration decreased NLRP3 inflammasome recruitment and subsequent activation of caspase-1, IL-1β, and IL-18. However, the combined administration of OLT1177 with BBG potentiated its inhibitory effect on the NLRP3, which was reflected by the additional suppressive effect on caspase-1, IL-1β, IL-18 levels. In conclusion, BBG/OLT1177 exhibited complementary effects and effectively ameliorated UC. This novel approach provides a basis for the clinical application of this combination for the treatment of IBDs and might also be promising for the pharmacological intervention of other NLRP3 inflammasome-dependent inflammatory conditions.