Glaucoma is a chronic and progressive optic neuropathy characterized by the death of retinal ganglion cells and corresponding visual field loss. Despite the growing number of studies on the subject, the pathogenesis of the disease remains unclear. Notwithstanding, several studies have shown that the lamina cribrosa (LC) is considered an anatomic site of glaucomatous optic nerve injury, thus having a key role in the pathophysiology of glaucoma development and progression. Different morphological alterations of the LC have been described in vivo in glaucomatous eyes after the evolution of optical coherence tomography (OCT) devices. The most relevant findings were the reduction of laminar thickness, the presence of localized defects and the posterior LC displacement. These new laminar parameters documented through OCT are not only promising as possible additional tools for glaucoma diagnosis and monitoring, but also as predictors of disease progression. In spite of the advance of technology, however, proper evaluation of the LC is not yet viable in all eyes. We describe OCT-identified LC changes related to the development and progression of glaucoma and provide future directions based on a critical data analysis, focusing on its clinical relevance and applicability.