Newborn screening is a successful program in many developed countries. In India, the benefits of dried blood spot screening have been recognized and that screening is slowly gaining traction. There are significant issues standing in the way of universal implementation of a newborn screening program in India: awareness, cost, advocacy, public policy, and politics. Three regional screening programs, Chandigarh, Goa, and Kerala could serve as models for other programs in India. The data for this commentary were based on personal experiences from managing public newborn screening programs, searches on PubMed and Google, and personal interactions with experts in the field. The overwhelming recommendation is to universally screen for congenital hypothyroidism in India, because it is easy and inexpensive to treat, with excellent outcomes. It would also be beneficial to consider screening universally for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency due to its high incidence and ease of treatment. Finally, sickle cell disease should be screened in those areas in India where it is prevalent due to the costs associated with universal screening. Achieving universal screening is a challenge, and it is very difficult to predict when every baby born in India will be screened for at least congenital hypothyroidism.
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