We identified an unusual pattern of renal tubular proliferation associated with chronic renal disease, found in 23 patients, diffusely (n=12), or focally (n=11). Incidence was 5% of end-stage renal disease kidneys from one institution (8/177) and 7/23 patients with acquired cystic kidney disease-associated renal cell carcinoma from another. Most (19 patients) had 1 or more neoplasms including papillary (n=9), acquired cystic kidney disease (n=8), clear cell (n=4), or clear cell papillary (n=3) renal cell carcinoma. All (20 men, 3 women) had end-stage renal disease. The predominant pattern (n=18) was the indentation of chronic inflammation into renal tubules forming small polypoid structures; however, 5 had predominantly hyperplastic epithelium with less conspicuous inflammation. In 14 patients both patterns were appreciable, whereas the remainder had only the inflammatory pattern. Immunohistochemistry was positive for cytokeratin 7, high-molecular-weight cytokeratin, PAX8, and GATA3. Staining for alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase was negative or weak, dramatically less intense than papillary neoplasms or proximal tubules. CD3 and CD20 showed a mixture of B and T lymphocytes in the inflammatory areas. Fluorescence in situ hybridization showed no trisomy 7 or 17 or loss of Y (n=9). We describe a previously uncharacterized form of renal tubular proliferation that differs from papillary adenoma (with weak or negative alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase, lack of trisomy 7 or 17, and sometimes diffuse distribution). On the basis of consistent staining for high-molecular-weight cytokeratin and GATA3, we propose the name distal tubular hyperplasia for this process. Future studies will be helpful to assess preneoplastic potential and etiology.